EMF Studies

Explore the latest, independent, non-industry funded, peer reviewed scientific literature exploring the effects of Electromagnetic Frequency, Radio Frequency, Dirty Electricty & Magnetic Field exposures. 

A

ANIMALS 

 Balmori A, (2015) Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as an emerging threat to wildlife orientation, Sci Total Environ. 2015 Jun 15;518-519:58-60. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.077. Epub 2015 Mar 4 [View Study HERE] 

Balmori, A. (2010), Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria)” tadpoles.​ ​Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine​, vol. 29, no. 1-2, pp. 31-5. [View Study HERE] 

Cammaerts MC et al, (2012) GSM 900 MHz radiation inhibits ants’ association between food sites and encountered cues, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE] 

Engels, Svenja, et al. Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird. Nature ​509.7500 (2014): 353-356. [View Study HERE]  

Everaert J, Bauwens D, (2007) A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus), Electromagn Biol Med. 2007;26(1):63-72 [View Study HERE] 

Gul A et al, (2009) The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats, Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE] 

Harkless, Ryan, Muntather Al-Quraishi and Mary C. Vagula (2014). Radiation hazards of radio frequency waves on the early embryonic development of Zebrafish.​ ​ SPIE Proceedings​, vol. 9112. [View Study HERE] 

Hassig M et al, (2012) Increased I of nuclear cataract in the calf after erection of a mobile phone base station, Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2012 Feb;154(2):82-6 [View Study HERE] 

Nofouzi K et al, (2015) Influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth performance, innate immune response, biochemical parameters and disease resistance in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Fish Physiol Biochem. 2015 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE] 

Prihoda TJ, (2009) Genetic damage in mammalian somatic cells exposed to extremely low frequency electro-magnetic fields: A metaanalysis of data from 87 publications (1990-2007), Int J Radiat Biol. 2009 Mar;85(3):196-213 [View Study HERE] 

Schwarze, S.,, et al. (2016)​ Weak Broadband Electromagnetic Fields are More Disruptive to Magnetic Compass Orientation in a Night-Migratory Songbird (Erithacus rubecula) than Strong Narrow-Band Fields. ​Front Behav Neurosci​. 10.55. [View Study HERE]  

Wiltschko R, et al. (2015) ​Magnetoreception in birds: the effect of radio-frequency fields.Journal of The Royal Society Interface​. [View Study HERE] 

Zareen N et al, (2009) Derangement of chick embryo retinal differentiation caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2009 Mar;49(1):15-9 [View Study HERE] 

ANXIETY 

Djordjevic, N., Paunović, M. and Peulić, A. (2017). Anxiety-like behavioural effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field in rats. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(27), pp.21693-21699. [View Study HERE]

Liu, T., Wang, S., He, L., & Ye, K. (2008). Anxiogenic effect of chronic exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field in adult rats. Neuroscience Letters434(1), 12–17. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.01.019 [View Study HERE]

Kitaoka, K., Kitamura, M., Aoi, S., Shimizu, N. and Yoshizaki, K. (2012). Chronic exposure to an extremely low-frequency magnetic field induces depression-like behaviour and corticosterone secretion without enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in mice. Bioelectromagnetics, 34(1), pp.43-51. [View Study HERE]

Varghese, R., Majumdar, A., Kumar, G., & Shukla, A. (2018). Rats exposed to 2.45 GHz of non-ionizing radiation exhibit behavioral changes with increased brain expression of apoptotic caspase 3. Pathophysiology25(1), 19-30. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2017.11.001 [View Study HERE]

APOPTOSIS/CELL DEATH  

Esmekaya MA et al, (2010) Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: a light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study, Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Dec;86(12):1106-16. Epub 2010 Sep 1 [View Study HERE]   

Joubert V et al, (2008) Apoptosis is Induced by Radiofrequency Fields through the Caspase-Independent Mitochondrial Pathway in Cortical Neurons, Radiat Res. 2008 Jan;169(1):38-45 [View Study HERE]   

Lee SK et al, (2014) Extremely low frequency magnetic fields induce spermatogenic germ cell apoptosis: possible mechanism, Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:567183. Doi: 10.1155/2014/567183. Epub 2014 Jun 15 [View Study HERE]  

Lu YS et al, (2012) Reactive Oxygen Species Formation and Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Induced by 900 MHz Mobile Phone Radiation, Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:740280. Epub 2012 Jun 14 [View Study HERE]  

Nikolova T et al, (2005) Electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of apoptosis-related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, FASEB J. 2005 Oct;19(12):1686-8 [View Study HERE]  

Oral B et al, (2006) Endometrial apoptosis induced by a 900-MHz mobile phone: preventive effects of vitamins E and C, Adv Ther. 2006 Nov-Dec;23(6):957-73 [View Study HERE]

Panagopoulos D et al, (2007) Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation, Mutat Res. 2007 Jan 10;626(1-2):69-78[View Study HERE ]

Pavicic I, Trosic I, (2008) In vitro testing of cellular response to ultra high frequency electromagnetic field radiation, Toxicol In Vitro. 2008 Aug;22(5):1344-8 [View Study HERE ]

B

BEES 

Sainudeen Sahib.S, (2011) ​Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Clashes with Honey Bees​,International Journal of Environmental Sciences10​, Volume 1, No 5. [View Study HERE]  

Gajski G et al, (2009) Radioprotective effects of honeybee venom (Apis mellifera) against 915-MHz microwave radiation-induced DNA damage in wistar rat lymphocytes: in vitro study, Int J Toxicol. 2009 Mar-Apr;28(2):88-98 [View Study HERE] 

Kimmel, Stefan, et al.​ (2007), ​Electromagnetic radiation: influences on honeybees (Apis mellifera).​ ​IIAS-InterSymp Conference​,  (finding that 39.7% of the non-irradiated bees had returned to their hives compared to only 7.3% of the irradiated bees). [View Study HERE]  

Kumar NR et al, (2011) Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees, Toxicol Int. 2011 Jan;18(1):70-2 [View Study HERE]  

Shepherd S et al, (2018) Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields impair the Cognitive and Motor Abilities of Honey Bees, Sci Rep. 2018 May 21;8(1):7932. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26185-y [View Study HERE]  

Ved Parkash Sharma, Neelima R. Kumar, (2010) ​Changes in honeybee behaviour and biology under the influence of cellphone radiations​, ​Current Science​, Vol. 98, No. 10, 25. [View Study HERE]  

Wolfgang Harst, Jochen Kuhn, & Hermann Stever, (2006) Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? Studying Possible Non-Thermal Influences on Honey Bees – An Approach within the Framework of Educational Informatics [View Study HERE] 

BRAIN TUMORS 

Baldi I et al, (2010) Occupational and residential exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of brain tumors in adults: A case-control study in Gironde, France, Int J Cancer. 2010 Nov 12. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]  

Cardis E et al, (2011) Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries, Occup Environ Med. 2011 Sep;68(9):631-40. Epub 2011 Jun 9 [View Study HERE]  

Hardell L et al, (2011) Pooled analysis of case-control studies on malignant brain tumours and the use of mobile and cordless phones including living and deceased subjects, Int J Oncol. 2011 May;38(5):1465-74. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2011.947. Epub 2011 Feb 17 [View Study HERE]  

Hardell L et al, (2005) Case-control study on cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic neuroma or meningioma in patients diagnosed 2000-2003, Neuroepidemiology. 2005;25(3):120-8  [View Study HERE]  

Hardell L et al, (2002) Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours, Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Aug;11(4):377-86 [View Study HERE]  

Hardell L et al, (2003) Further aspects on cellular and cordless telephones and brain tumours, Int J Oncol. 2003 Feb;22(2):399-407 [View Study HERE]   

Hardell L et al, (2006) Case-control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless telephones and malignant brain tumors diagnosed during 2000-2003, Environ Res. 2006 Feb;100(2):232-41 [View Study HERE]  

Hardell L et al, (1999) Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: A case-control study, Int J Oncol. 1999 Jul;15(1):113-6 [View Study HERE]   

Hardell L et al, (2003) Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones, Neuroepidemiology 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):124-9 [View Study HERE]   

Hardell L et al, (2000) Case-control study on radiology work, medical x-ray investigations, and use of cellular telephones as risk factors for brain tumors, MedGenMed. 2000 May 4;2(2):E2 [View Study HERE]  

Hardell L, Carlberg M, (2009) Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours, Int J Oncol. 2009 Jul;35(1):5-17 [View Study HERE]  

Hardell L et al, (2006) Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones, World J Surg Oncol 2006 Oct 11;4:74 [View Study HERE]  

Mild KH et al, (2007) Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003, Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2007;13(1):63-71 [View Study HERE]  

Turner MC et al, (2014) Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and brain tumor risks in the INTEROCC study, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Sep;23(9):1863-72. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0102. Epub 2014 Jun 16 [View Study HERE]  

Lerchl A et al, (2015) Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Apr 17;459(4):585-90. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.02.151. Epub 2015 Mar 6 [View Study HERE]  

Levis AG et al, (2011) Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies – how do they arise?, Environ Health. 2011 Jun 17;10:59 [View Study HERE]  

Morgan LL et al, (2015) Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review), Int J Oncol. 2015 May;46(5):1865-71. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2015.2908. Epub 2015 Feb 25 [View Study HERE]  

Morgan LL, (2009) Estimating the risk of brain tumors from cellphone use: Published case-control studies, Pathophysiology. 2009 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]Click here to read [View Study HERE]  

Soderqvist F et al, (2011) Childhood brain tumour risk and its association with wireless phones: a commentary, Environ Health. 2011 Dec 19;10(1):106. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE] 

BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER PERMEABILITY 

Aalto S et al, (2006) Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006 Jul;26(7):885-90 [View Study HERE]  

Dasdag S et al, (2012) Effect of 900 MHz Radio Frequency Radiation on Beta Amyloid Protein, Protein Carbonyl, and Malondialdehyde in the Brain, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Jan 23. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE]  

Eberhardt JL et al, (2008) Blood-brain barrier permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones, Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(3):215-29 [View Study HERE] 

Fragopoulou AF et al, (2012) Brain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Jan 20. [View Study HERE]  

Leszczynski D et al, (2002) Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects, Differentiation. 2002 May;70(2-3):120-9 [View Study HERE]  

Nittby H et al, (2008) Radiofrequency and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field effects on the blood-brain barrier, Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(2):103-26 [View Study HERE]  

Sirav B, Seyhan N, (2009) Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation, Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28(2):215-2 [View Study HERE]  

Sirav B, Seyhan N, (2011) Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats, Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):253-60  [View Study HERE]  

Karaca E et al, (2011) The genotoxic effect of radiofrequency waves on mouse brain, J Neurooncol. 2011 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE]  

Lonn S et al, (2004) Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma, Epidemiology. 2004 Nov;15(6):653-9  [View Study HERE]  

Lopez-Martin E et al, (2009) The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness, J Neurosci Res. 2009 May 1;87(6):1484-99 [View Study HERE]  

Maskey D et al, (2014) Alteration of glycine receptor immunoreactivity in the auditory brainstem of mice following three months of exposure to radiofrequency radiation at SAR 4.0 W/kg, Int J Mol Med. 2014 Aug;34(2):409-19. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2014.1784. Epub 2014 May 22 [View Study HERE]  

Nittby H et al, (2009) Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM900 mobile phone, Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):103-12. Epub 2009 Apr 2 [View Study HERE]  

Schoemaker MJ et al, (2005) Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case-control study in five North European countries, Br J Cancer. 2005 Oct 3;93(7):842-8  [View Study HERE] 

Sirav B, Seyhan N, (2009) Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation, Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28(2):215-22 [View Study HERE]  

Sirav B, Seyhan N, (2011) Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats, Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):253-60 [View Study HERE]  

Soderqvist F et al, (2009) Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study, Environ Health. 2009 Apr 21;8:19 [View Study HERE]  

Trosic I et al, (2011) Effect of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation on the rats’ brain, liver and kidney cells measured by comet assay, Coll Antropol. 2011 Dec;35(4):1259-64 [View Study HERE]

C

CANCER 

Belyaev I et al, (2009) Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells Stronger than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk, Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Oct 22. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]  

Carpenter DO et al, (2010) Electromagnetic fields and cancer: the cost of doing nothing, Rev Environ Health. 2010 Jan-Mar;25(1):75-80 [View Study HERE]  

Carlberg M, Hardell L, (2014) Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones, Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Oct 16;11(10):10790-10805 [View Study HERE]  

Davis RL, Mostofi FK, (1993) Cluster of testicular cancer in police officers exposed to hand-held radar, Am J Ind Med. 1993 Aug;24(2):231-3 [View Study HERE]  

Dolk H et al, (1997) Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain. I. Sutton Coldfield transmitter, Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Jan 1;145(1):1-9[View Study HERE]  

Grayson JK, (1996) Radiation exposure, socioeconomic status, and brain tumor risk in the US Air Force: a nested case-control study, Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Mar 1;143(5):480-6[View Study HERE]   

Hardell L et al, (2009) Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases, Pathophysiology. 2009 Mar 4. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]  

Hardell L et al, (2005) Use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005 Sep;78(8):625-32[View Study HERE]  

Hocking B et al, (1996) Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers, Med J Aust. 1996 Dec 2-16;165(11-12):601-5 [View Study HERE]  

Holt JA, (1980) Changing epidemiology of malignant melanoma in Queensland, Med J Aust. 1980 Jun 14;1(12):619-20 [View Study HERE]  

Kaufman DW et al, (2009) Risk factors for leukemia in Thailand, Ann Hematol. 2009 Nov;88(11):1079-88. Epub 2009 Mar 18[View Study HERE]  

Kundi M, (2009) The controversy about a possible relationship between mobile phone use and cancer, Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Mar;117(3):316-24 [View Study HERE]  

Lahkola A et al, (2007) Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries, Int J Cancer. 2007 Apr 15;120(8):1769-75[View Study HERE]  

Malagoli C et al, (2010) Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy, Environ Health. 2010 Mar 30;9:16 [View Study HERE] 

Milham S, Morgan LL, (2008) A new electromagnetic exposure metric: High frequency voltage transients associated with increased cancer incidence in teachers in a california school, Am J Ind Med. 2008 May 29. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]  

Sohrabi MR et al, (2010) Living near overhead high voltage transmission power lines as a risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case-control study, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(2):423-7[View Study HERE]  

Leszczynski D et al, (2002) Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects, Differentiation. 2002 May;70(2-3):120-9 [View Study HERE]  

Tynes T et al, (1996) Incidence of breast cancer in Norwegian female radio and telegraph operators, Cancer Causes Control. 1996 Mar;7(2):197-204 [View Study HERE]  

Richter E et al, (2000) Cancer in radar technicians exposed to radiofrequency/microwave radiation: sentinel episodes, Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000 Jul-Sep;6(3):187-93 [View Study HERE] 

Stang A et al, (2001) The possible role of radiofrequency radiation in the development of uveal melanoma, Epidemiology. 2001 Jan;12(1):7-12[View Study HERE]  

Hocking B, Gordon I, (2003) Decreased survival for childhood leukemia in proximity to television towers, Arch Environ Health. 2003 Sep;58(9):560-4[View Study HERE]  

Myung SK et al, (2009) Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis, J Clin Oncol. 2009 Nov 20;27(33):5565-72. Epub 2009 Oct 13 [View Study HERE]  

Richter E et al, (2000) Cancer in radar technicians exposed to radiofrequency/microwave radiation: sentinel episodes, Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000 Jul-Sep;6(3):187-93 [View Study HERE]  

Michelozzi P et al, (2001) Leukemia mortality and incidence of infantile leukemia near the Vatican Radio Station of Rome, Epidemiol Prev. 2001 Nov-Dec;25(6):249-55 [View Study HERE]  

Hallberg O, Johansson O, (2002) Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting, Arch Environ Health. 2002 JanFeb;57(1):32-40 [View Study HERE]  

Michelozzi P et al, (2002) Adult and childhood leukemia near a high-power radio station in Rome, Italy, Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Jun 15;155(12):1096-103[View Study HERE]  

Hallberg O, Johansson O, (2004) Malignant melanoma of the skin – not a sunshine story!, Med Sci Monit. 2004 Jul;10(7):CR336-40[View Study HERE]  

Park SK et al, (2004) Ecological study on residences in the vicinity of AM radio broadcasting towers and cancer death: preliminary observations in Korea, Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2004 Aug;77(6):387-94 [View Study HERE]  

Juutilainen J et al, (2006) Do extremely low frequency magnetic fields enhance the effects of environmental carcinogens? A metaanalysis of experimental studies, Int J Radiat Biol. 2006 Jan;82(1):1-12[View Study HERE]  

Trivino Pardo JC et al, (2012) Microwave electromagnetic field regulates gene expression in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line exposed to 900 MHz, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Mar;31(1):1-18 [View Study HERE] 

Yakymenko I, Sidorik E, (2010) Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile telephony devices, Exp Oncol. 2010 Jul;32(2):54-60[View Study HERE] 

Wang X et al, (2011) Occupational and residential exposure to electric and magnetic field and its relationship on acute myeloid leukemia in adults – A Meta-analysis, Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2011 Aug;32(8):821-6[View Study HERE] 

Zhao G et al, (2014) Relationship between exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and breast cancer risk: a metaanalysis, Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014;35(3):264-9 [View Study HERE]

CARDIAC EFFECTS

Andrzejak R et al, (2008) The influence of the call with a mobile phone on heart rate variability parameters in healthy volunteers, Ind Health. 2008 Aug;46(4):409-17] [View Study HERE] 

Huber R et al, (2003) Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate, Bioelectromagnetics. 2003 May;24(4):262-76 [View Study HERE]

Zhao LY et al, (2012) Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of workers, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2012 Mar;30(3):194-5 [View Study HERE] 

Szmigielski S et al, (1998) Alteration of diurnal rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate to workers exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, Blood Press Monit. 1998;3(6):323-30 [View Study HERE]

CHILDREN

Abramson MJ et al, (2009) Mobile telephone use is associated with changes in cognitive function in young adolescents, Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE] 

Chiu CT et al, (2014) Mobile phone use and health symptoms in children, J Formos Med Assoc. 2014 Aug 9. pii: S0929-6646(14)00207-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jfma.2014.07.002. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE] 

Redmayne M, (2015) International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), Electromagn Biol Med. 2015 Jun 19:1-9.  [View Study HERE]

Draper G et al, (2005) Childhood cancer in relation to distance from high voltage power lines in England and Wales: a case-control study, BMJ. 2005 Jun 4;330(7503):1290 [View Study HERE] 

Feychting M, Ahlbom A, (1993) Magnetic fields and cancer in children residing near Swedish high-voltage power lines, Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Oct 1;138(7):467-81] [View Study HERE] 

Ha M et al, (2007) Radio-frequency radiation exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer, Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Aug 1;166(3):270-9 [View Study HERE]  

Henshaw DL, Reiter RJ, (2005) Do magnetic fields cause increased risk of childhood leukemia via melatonin disruption?, Bioelectromagnetics. 2005;Suppl 7:S86-97 [View Study HERE] 

Kolodynski AA, Kolodynska VV, (1996) Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia, Sci Total Environ. 1996 Feb 2;180(1):87-93 [View Study HERE]  

Krause CM et al, (2006) Mobile phone effects on children’s event-related oscillatory EEG during an auditory memory task, Int J Radiat Biol 2006 Jun;82(6):443-50 [View Study HERE] 

Meo, S. A et al.,. (2019). ​Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students’ Cognitive Health.​ American Journal of Men’s Health doi.org/10.1177/1557988318816914. [View Study HERE] 

Milham S, Ossiander EM, (2001) Historical evidence that residential electrification caused the emergence of the childhood leukemia peak, Med Hypotheses. 2001 Mar;56(3):290-5 [View Study HERE] 

Movvahedi MM et al, (2014) Does exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation affect short-term memory of elementary school students?, J Pediatr Neurosci. 2014 May;9(2):121-4. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.139300 [View Study HERE] 

Olsen JH et al, (1993) Residence near high voltage facilities and risk of cancer in children, BMJ. 1993 Oct 9;307(6909):891-5 [View Study HERE] 

Preece AW et al, (2005) Effect of 902 MHz mobile phone transmission on cognitive function in children, Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 7 S138-43   [View Study HERE] 

Soderqvist F et al, (2011) Childhood brain tumour risk and its association with wireless phones: a commentary, Environ Health. 2011 Dec 19;10(1):106. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE] 

Thomas S et al, (2010) Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioural problems in Bavarian children and adolescents, Eur J Epidemiol. 2010 Feb;25(2):135-41. Epub 2009 Dec 4 [View Study HERE] 

Yang Y et al, (2008) Case-only study of interactions between DNA repair genes (hMLH1, APEX1, MGMT, XRCC1 and XPD) and lowfrequency electromagnetic fields in childhood acute leukemia, Leuk Lymphoma. 2008 Dec;49(12):2344-50 [View Study HERE]

D

DIRTY ELECTRICITY

Milham, S., & Stetzer, D. (2013). Dirty electricity, chronic stress, neurotransmitters and disease. Electromagnetic Biology And Medicine32(4), 500-507. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2012.743909 [View Study HERE]

DNA DAMAGE & GENOTOXICITY

Cam ST, Seyhan N, (2012) Single-strand DNA breaks in human hair root cells exposed to mobile phone radiation, Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Campisi A et al, (2010) Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field, Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 31;473(1):52-5. Epub 2010 Feb 13[View Study HERE]

Celikler S et al, (2009) A biomonitoring study of genotoxic risk to workers of transformers and distribution line stations, Int J Environ Health Res. 2009 Dec;19(6):421-30[View Study HERE ]

Dasdag S et al, (2015) Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radition emitted from WiFi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue, Int J Radiat Biol. 2015 Mar 16:1-26. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

De Iuliis GN et al, (2009) Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro, PLoS One. 2009 Jul 31;4(7):e6446[View Study HERE ]

Diem E et al, (2005) Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro, Mutat Res. 2005 Jun 6;583(2):178-83 [View Study HERE ]

Focke F et al, (2010) DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure, Mutat Res. 2010 Jan 5;683(1-2):74-83[View Study HERE ]

Gandhi G et al, (2014) A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station, Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Jul 9:1-11. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Guler G et al, (2011) The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in female and male infant rabbits, Int J Radiat Biol. 2011 Dec 7. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Ivancsits S et al, (2003) Age-related effects on induction of DNA strand breaks by intermittent exposure to electromagnetic fields, Mech Ageing Dev. 2003 Jul;124(7):847-50 [View Study HERE ]

Ivancsits S et al, (2003) Intermittent extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA damage in a dose-dependent way, Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2003 Jul;76(6):431-6[View Study HERE ]

Ivancsits S et al, (2005) Cell type-specific genotoxic effects of intermittent extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, Mutat Res. 2005 Jun 6;583(2):184-8[View Study HERE ]

Jiang B et al, (2012) Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields: Primary DNA Damage, PloS One. 2012;7(2):e32040. Epub 2012 Feb 28[View Study HERE ]

Kaufman DW et al, (2009) Risk factors for leukemia in Thailand, Ann Hematol. 2009 Nov;88(11):1079-88. Epub 2009 Mar 18[View Study HERE ]

Lai H, Singh NP, (2004) Magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat, Environ Health Perspect. 2004 May;112(6):68794[View Study HERE ]

Miyakoshi J, (2005) Effects of static magnetic fields at the cellular level, Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2005 Feb-Apr;87(2-3):213-23[View Study HERE ]

Phillips JL et al, (2009) Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage, Pathophysiology. 2009 Mar 3. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Ruediger HW, (2009) Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, Pathophysiology. 2009 Mar 12. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Xu S et al, (2009) Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons, Brain Res. 2010 Jan 22;1311:189-96. Epub 2009 Oct 30 [View Study HERE ]

Yao K et al, (2008) Effect of superposed electromagnetic noise on DNA damage of lens epithelial cells induced by microwave radiation, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 May;49(5):2009-15 [View Study HERE ]

Yao K et al, (2008) Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells, Mol Vis. 2008 May 19;14:964-9[View Study HERE ]

Zhang SZ et al, (2008) Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on gene expression of rat neurons, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2008 Aug;26(8):449-52[View Study HERE ]

Zhijian C et al, (2010) Impact of 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on DNA damage and repair induced by doxorubicin in human Bcell lymphoblastoid cells, Mutat Res. 2010 Jan;695(1-2):16-21. Epub 2009 Oct 13[View Study HERE ]

Zong C et al, (2015) Adaptive response in mice exposed to 900 MHZ radiofrequency fields: Bleomycin-induced DNA and oxidative damage/repair, Int J Radiat Biol. 2015 Mar;91(3):270-6. Doi: 10.3109/09553002.2014.980465. Epub 2015 Jan 27[View Study HERE ]

 

DEPRESSION

Ahlbom A, (2001) Neurodegenerative diseases, suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF, Bioelectromagnetics. 2001;Suppl 5:S132-43 [View Study HERE

Augner C et al, (2008) GSM base stations: Short-term effects on well-being, Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 Sep 19. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]

Poole C et al, (1993) Depressive symptoms and headaches in relation to proximity of residence to an alternating-current transmission line right-of-way, Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Feb 1;137(3):318-30 [View Study HERE]

Reichmanis M et al, (1979) Relation between suicide and the electromagnetic field of overhead power lines, Physiol Chem Phys. 1979;11(5):395403 [View Study HERE]

van Wijngaarden E, (2003) An exploratory investigation of suicide and occupational exposure, J Occup Environ Med. 2003 Jan;45(1):96101] [View Study HERE]

Verkasalo PK et al, (1997) Magnetic fields of transmission lines and depression, Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Dec 15;146(12):1037-45] [View Study HERE]

 E

ELECTRO-HYPERSENSITIVITY 

Abdel-Rassoul G et al, (2007) Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations, Neurotoxicology. 2007 Mar;28(2):434-40 [View Study HERE] 

Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA, (2004) Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population, Saudi Med J. 2004 Jun;25(6):732-6 [View Study HERE] 

Blettner M et al, (2008) Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: Phase 1: A population-based cross-sectional study in Germany, Occup Environ Med. 2008 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE] 

Bortkiewicz A et al, (2004) Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: review, Med Pr. 2004;55(4):345-51 [View Study HERE] 

Carpenter DO, (2014) Excessive exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may cause the development of electrohypersensitivity, Altern Ther Health Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;20(6):40-2 [View Study HERE] 

Edelstyn N, Oldershaw A, (2002) The acute effects of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human attention, Neuroreport. 2002 Jan 21;13(1):119-21 [View Study HERE] 

Eriksson N et al, (1997) The psychosocial work environment and skin symptoms among visual display terminal workers: a case referent study, Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Dec;26(6):1250-7 [View Study HERE] 

Forman SA et al, (1995) Psychological symptoms and intermittent hypertension following acute microwave exposure, J Occup Med. 1982 Nov;24(11):932-4 [View Study HERE] 

Freude G et al, (2000) Microwaves emitted by cellular telephones affect human slow brain potentials, Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000 Jan;81(12):18-27 [View Study HERE]

Gangi S, Johansson O, (1997) Skin changes in “screen dermatitis” versus classical UV- and ionizing irradiation-related damage-similarities and differences, Exp Dermatol. 1997 Dec;6(6):283-91 [View Study HERE] 

Gangi S, Johansson O, (2000) A theoretical model based upon mast cells and histamine to explain the recently proclaimed sensitivity to electric and/or magnetic fields in humans, Med Hypotheses. 2000 Apr;54(4):663-71 [View Study HERE]  

Geronikolou S et al, (2014) Diverse radiofrequency sensitivity and radiofrequency effects of mobile or cordless phone near fields exposure in Drosophila melanogaster, PLoS One. 2014 Nov 17;9(11):e112139. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112139. eCollection 2014 [View Study HERE]

Grigoriev YG et al, (2010) Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results, Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Dec;31(8):589-602. doi: 10.1002/bem.20605. Epub 2010 Sep 20 [View Study HERE]

Haugsdal B et al, (1998) Comparison of symptoms experienced by users of analogue and digital mobile phones: a Swedish-Norwegian epidemiological study, Arbetslivsrapport 23: 1998

Hocking B, Westerman R, (2002) Neurological changes induced by a mobile phone, Occup Med (Lond). 2002 Oct;52(7):413-5 [View Study HERE]

Johansson O et al, (1994) Skin changes in patients claiming to suffer from “screen dermatitis”: a two-case open-field provocation study, Exp Dermatol. 1994 Oct;3(5):234-8 [View Study HERE]

Johansson O et al, (2001) Cutaneous mast cells are altered in normal healthy volunteers sitting in front of ordinary TVs/PCs–results from open-field provocation experiments, J Cutan Pathol. 2001 Nov;28(10):513-9. ] [View Study HERE]

Johansson O, (2006) Electrohypersensitivity: state-of-the-art of a functional impairment, Electromagn Biol Med. 2006;25(4):245-58 [View Study HERE]

Lamech F, (2014) Self-reporting of symptom development from exposure to radiofrequency fields of wireless smart meters in victoria, australia: a case series, Altern Ther Health Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;20(6):28-39 [View Study HERE]

Landgrebe M et al, (2007) Altered cortical excitability in subjectively electrosensitive patients: results of a pilot study, J Psychosom Res. 2007 Mar;62(3):283-8 [View Study HERE]

Landgrebe M et al, (2008) Cognitive and neurobiological alterations in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients: results of a case-control study, Psychol Med. 2008 Mar 26;:1-11] [View Study HERE]

Leitgeb N et al, (2005) Does “electromagnetic pollution” cause illness? An inquiry among Austrian general practitioners, Wien Med Wochenschr. 2005 May;155(9-10):237-41 [View Study HERE]

Levallois P et al, (2002) Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California, Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Aug;110 Suppl 4:619-23 [View Study HERE]

Lowden A et al, (2011) Sleep after mobile phone exposure in subjects with mobile phone-related symptoms, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Jan;32(1):4-14 [View Study HERE]

Lyskov E et al, (2001) Provocation study of persons with perceived electrical hypersensitivity and controls using magnetic field exposure and recording of electrophysiological characteristics, Bioelectromagnetics. 2001 Oct;22(7):457-62 [View Study HERE]

McCarty DE et al, (2011) Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: evidence for a novel neurological syndrome, Int J Neurosci. 2011 Dec;121(12):670-6. Epub 2011 Sep 5 [View Study HERE]

Meo SA, Al-Drees AM, (2005) Mobile phone related-hazards and subjective hearing and vision symptoms in the Saudi population, Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2005;18(1):53-7]  [View Study HERE]

Nishimura T et al, (2011) A 1-uT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field vs. sham control for mild-to-moderate hypertension: a double-blind, randomized study, Hypertens Res. 2011 Mar;34(3):372-7. Epub 2011 Jan 20] [View Study HERE]

Oftedal G et al, (2000) Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use, Occup Med (Lond). 2000 May;50(4):237-45 [View Study HERE]

Papageorgiou CC et al, (2006) Acute mobile phone effects on pre-attentive operation, Neurosci Lett. 2006 Apr 10-17;397(1-2):99-103 [View Study HERE]

Persinger MA, (2006) A potential multiple resonance mechanism by which weak magnetic fields affect molecules and medical problems: the example of melatonin and experimental “multiple sclerosis”, Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(4):811-5 [View on Pubmed]

Redmayne M, Johansson O, (2014) Could myelin damage from radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure help explain the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity? A review of the evidence, J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2014;17(5):247-58. doi: 10.1080/10937404.2014.923356] [View Study HERE]

Sandstrom M et al, (1997) Neurophysiological effects of flickering light in patients with perceived electrical hypersensitivity, J Occup Environ Med. 1997 Jan;39(1):15-22 [View Study HERE]

Santini R et al, (2003) Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of base stations: II/ Incidences of age, duration of exposure, location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors, Pathol Biol (Paris). 2003 Sep;51(7):412-5 [View Study HERE]

Stenberg B et al, (2002) Medical and social prognosis for patients with perceived hypersensitivity to electricity and skin symptoms related to the use of visual display terminals, Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002 Oct;28(5):349-57 [View Study HERE]

Westerman R, Hocking B, (2004) Diseases of modern living: neurological changes associated with mobile phones and radiofrequency radiation in humans, Neurosci Lett. 2004 May 6;361(1-3):13-6 [View Study HERE]

Wiholm C et al, (2008) Mobile phone exposure and spatial memory, Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 Sep 15. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION & HORMONAL EFFECTS

Al-Akhras MA et al, (2008) Influence of 50 Hz magnetic field on sex hormones and body, uterine, and ovarian weights of adult female rats, Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(2):155-63[View Study HERE ]

Clark ML et al, (2007) Biomonitoring of estrogen and melatonin metabolites among women residing near radio and television broadcasting transmitters, J Occup Environ Med. 2007 Oct;49(10):1149-56[View Study HERE ]

Eskander EF et al, (2011) How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?, Clin Biochem. 2011 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Grajewski B et al, (2000) Semen quality and hormone levels among radiofrequency heater operators, J Occup Environ Med. 2000 Oct;42(10):993-1005[View Study HERE ]

Reyes-Guerrero G et al, (2010) Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields differentially regulate estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta expression in the rat olfactory bulb, Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 3;471(2):109-13. Epub 2010 Jan 18[View Study HERE]

 

ENVIRONMENT

Bandara, P., & Carpenter, D. (2018). Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact. The Lancet Planetary Health2(12), e512-e514. doi: 10.1016/s2542-5196(18)30221-3 [View Study HERE]

Cornelia Waldmann-Selsam, Alfonso Balmori-de la Puente, Helmut Breunig, Alfonso Balmori, (2016) ​Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base station, doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.045. Science of The Total Environment​, Volume 572, Pages 554-567 [View Study HERE]

Cucurachi, C., et al. (2013)​ ​A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) Environment International​, vol. 51, pp. 116–40. [View Study HERE]

Haggerty, Katie, (2010) ​Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings International Journal of Forestry Research, vol 2010, no. 836278. [View Study HERE]

Halgamuge, M.N, (2017). ​ ​Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 213-235. [View Study HERE]

Malka N. Halgamuge (2017) Review: Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants,​ Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine​, 36:2, 213-235, DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2016.1220389. [View Study HERE]

Malkemper, E.P., et al. (2015) ​Magnetoreception in the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus): influence of weak frequency-modulated radio frequency fields. Scientific Reports, vol. 4, no. 9917 [View Study HERE]

S Sivani, D Sudarsanam, (2012). Impacts of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell phone towers and wireless devices on biosystem and ecosystem – a review,​ Biology and Medicine, 4 (4): 202–216. [View Study HERE]

Science of The Total Environment, (2016) Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations, Volume 572, Pages 554-569, ISSN 0048-9697, doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.045. [View Study HERE]

Sharma VP et al, (2009) Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress, Sci Total Environ. 2009 Oct 15;407(21):5543-7. Epub 2009 Aug 13 [View Study HERE ]

Tkalec M et al, (2008) Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on seed germination and root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L, Mutat Res. 2008 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]

Waldmann-Selsam, C., et al. (2016), ​Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations. Science of the Total Environment, vol. 572, pp. 554-69 [View Study HERE]

M

MEMORY, LEARNING DEFICITS & BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS

Abramson MJ et al, (2009) Mobile telephone use is associated with changes in cognitive function in young adolescents, Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE ]

Aldad TS et al, (2012) Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice, Sci Rep. 2012;2:312. Epub 2012 Mar 15 [View Study HERE ]

Edelstyn N, Oldershaw A, (2002) The acute effects of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human attention, Neuroreport. 2002 Jan 21;13(1):119-21[View Study HERE]

Koivisto M et al, (2000) Effects of 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones on response times in humans, Neuroreport. 2000 Feb 7;11(2):413-5[View Study HERE ]

Koivisto M et al, (2000) The effects of electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones on working memory, Neuroreport. 2000 Jun 5;11(8):1641-3[View Study HERE ]

Kolodynski AA, Kolodynska VV, (1996) Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia, Sci Total Environ. 1996 Feb 2;180(1):87-93] [View Study HERE ]

Krause CM et al, (2000) Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the electroencephalogram during a visual working memory task, Int J Radiat Biol. 2000 Dec;76(12):1659-67[View Study HERE ]

Lai H et al, (1994) Microwave irradiation affects radial-arm maze performance in the rat, Bioelectromagnetics. 1994;15(2):95-104[View Study HERE ]

Lai H, (1996) Spatial learning deficit in the rat after exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field, Bioelectromagnetics. 1996;17(6):494-6[View Study HERE ]

Lai H, (2004) Interaction of microwaves and a temporally incoherent magnetic field on spatial learning in the rat, Physiol Behav. 2004 Oct 15;82(5):785-9[View Study HERE ]

Luria R et al, (2008) Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: The influence of exposure side and time, Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 Nov 17;30(3):198-204. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Meo, S. A., Almahmoud, M., Alsultan, Q., Alotaibi, N., Alnajashi, I., & Hajjar, W. M. (2019). ​Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students’ Cognitive Health.American Journal of Men’s Health​​. doi.org/10.1177/1557988318816914. [View Study HERE]

Movvahedi MM et al, (2014) Does exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation affect short-term memory of elementary school students?, J Pediatr Neurosci. 2014 May;9(2):121-4. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.139300[View Study HERE ]

Nittby H et al, (2007) Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation, Bioelectromagnetics. 2007 Nov 28 [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE ]

Preece AW et al, (2005) Effect of 902 MHz mobile phone transmission on cognitive function in children, Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 7 S138-43 [ View Study HERE ]

Qin F et al, (2014) Effects of nano-selenium on cognition performance of mice exposed in 1800 MHz radiofrequency fields, Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2014 Jan;43(1):16-21[View Study HERE ]

Thomas S et al, (2010) Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioural problems in Bavarian children and adolescents, Eur J Epidemiol. 2010 Feb;25(2):135-41. Epub 2009 Dec 4[View Study HERE ]

Wang B, Lai H, (2000) Acute exposure to pulsed 2450-MHz microwaves affects water-maze performance of rats, Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Jan;21(1):52-6[View Study HERE ]

Wiholm C et al, (September 2008) Mobile phone exposure and spatial memory, Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 Sep 15. [Epub ahead of print][View Study HERE ]

 

MOBILE PHONES

Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA, (2004) Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population, Saudi Med J. 2004 Jun;25(6):732-6 [View Study HERE ]

Tsarna, E., Reedijk, M., Birks, L., Guxens, M., Ballester, F., & Ha, M. et al. (2019). Associations of Maternal Cell-Phone Use During Pregnancy With Pregnancy Duration and Fetal Growth in 4 Birth Cohorts. American Journal Of Epidemiology188(7), 1270-1280. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwz092 [View Study HERE]

Nittby H et al, (2009) Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM900 mobile phone, Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):103-12. Epub 2009 Apr 2[View Study HERE ]

Soderqvist F et al, (2009) Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study, Environ Health. 2009 Apr 21;8:19[View Study HERE ]

Aalto S et al, (2006) Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006 Jul;26(7):885-90[View Study HERE ]

Cardis E et al, (2011) Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries, Occup Environ Med. 2011 Sep;68(9):631-40. Epub 2011 Jun 9 [View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (2011) Pooled analysis of case-control studies on malignant brain tumours and the use of mobile and cordless phones including living and deceased subjects, Int J Oncol. 2011 May;38(5):1465-74. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2011.947. Epub 2011 Feb 17[View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (2005) Case-control study on cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic neuroma or meningioma in patients diagnosed 2000-2003, Neuroepidemiology. 2005;25(3):120-8  [View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (2002) Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours, Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Aug;11(4):377-86 [View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (2003) Further aspects on cellular and cordless telephones and brain tumours, Int J Oncol. 2003 Feb;22(2):399-407  [View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (2006) Case-control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless telephones and malignant brain tumors diagnosed during 2000-2003, Environ Res. 2006 Feb;100(2):232-41  [View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (1999) Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: A case-control study, Int J Oncol. 1999 Jul;15(1):113-6  [View Study HERE ]

Eberhardt JL et al, (2008) Blood-brain barrier permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones, Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(3):215-29  [View Study HERE ]

Leszczynski D et al, (2002) Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects, Differentiation. 2002 May;70(2-3):120-9[View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (2003) Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones, Neuroepidemiology 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):124-9  [View Study HERE ]

Mild KH et al, (2007) Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003, Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2007;13(1):63-71[View Study HERE ]

Levis AG et al, (2011) Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies – how do they arise?, Environ Health. 2011 Jun 17;10:59[View Study HERE ]

Morgan LL et al, (2015) Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review), Int J Oncol. 2015 May;46(5):1865-71. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2015.2908. Epub 2015 Feb 25 [View Study HERE ]

Morgan LL, (2009) Estimating the risk of brain tumors from cellphone use: Published case-control studies, Pathophysiology. 2009 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]Click here to read [View Study HERE ]

Soderqvist F et al, (2011) Childhood brain tumour risk and its association with wireless phones: a commentary, Environ Health. 2011 Dec 19;10(1):106. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (2000) Case-control study on radiology work, medical x-ray investigations, and use of cellular telephones as risk factors for brain tumors, MedGenMed. 2000 May 4;2(2):E2  [View Study HERE ]

Hardell L, Carlberg M, (2009) Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours, Int J Oncol. 2009 Jul;35(1):5-17. [View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (2006) Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones, World J Surg Oncol 2006 Oct 11;4:74 [View Study HERE ]

Eskander EF et al, (2011) How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?, Clin Biochem. 2011 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Lu YS et al, (2012) Reactive Oxygen Species Formation and Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Induced by 900 MHz Mobile Phone Radiation, Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:740280. Epub 2012 Jun 14 [View Study HERE ]

Gul A et al, (2009) The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats, Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]

Kumar NR et al, (2011) Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees, Toxicol Int. 2011 Jan;18(1):70-2 [View Study HERE ]

Ved Parkash Sharma, Neelima R. Kumar, (2010) ​Changes in honeybee behaviour and biology under the influence of cellphone radiations​, ​Current Science​, Vol. 98, No. 10, 25. [View Study HERE]

Cao Z et al, (2000) Effects of electromagnetic radiation from handsets of cellular telephone on neurobehavioral function, Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2000 Mar 30;29(2):102-3[View Study HERE ]

D’Costa H et al, (2003) Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones, Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2003 Dec;26(4):162-7 [View Study HERE ]

Eulitz C et al, (1998) Mobile phones modulate response patterns of human brain activity, Neuroreport. 1998 Oct 5;9(14):3229-32[View Study HERE ]

Freude G et al, (1998) Effects of microwaves emitted by cellular phones on human slow brain potentials, Bioelectromagnetics. 1998;19(6):384-7  [View Study HERE ]

Hocking B, Westerman R, (2002) Neurological changes induced by a mobile phone, Occup Med (Lond). 2002 Oct;52(7):413-5[View Study HERE ]

Huber R et al, (2002) Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG, J Sleep Res 2002 Dec;11(4):289-95[View Study HERE ]

Robertson JA et al, (2009) Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field exposure can alter neuroprocessing in humans, J R Soc Interface. 2009 Aug 5. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE ]

Saikhedkar N et al, (2014) Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain, Neurol Res. 2014 May 26:1743132814Y0000000392. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Schuz J et al, (2009) Risks for central nervous system diseases among mobile phone subscribers: a Danish retrospective cohort study, PLoS ONE. 2009;4(2):e4389. Epub 2009 Feb 5[View Study HERE ]

Oral B et al, (2006) Endometrial apoptosis induced by a 900-MHz mobile phone: preventive effects of vitamins E and C, Adv Ther. 2006 Nov-Dec;23(6):957-73[View Study HERE ]

Panagopoulos D et al, (2007) Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation, Mutat Res. 2007 Jan 10;626(1-2):69-78[View Study HERE ]

Lu YS et al, (2012) Reactive Oxygen Species Formation and Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Induced by 900 MHz Mobile Phone Radiation, Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:740280. Epub 2012 Jun 14 [View Study HERE ]

 

N

NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE

Ahlbom A, (2001) Neurodegenerative diseases, suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF, Bioelectromagnetics. 2001;Suppl 5:S132-43 [View Study HERE ]

Andel R et al, (2010) Work-related exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and dementia: results from the populationbased study of dementia in Swedish twins, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Nov;65(11):1220-7. Epub 2010 Jul 9] [View Study HERE ]

Brouwer M et al, (2015) Occupational exposures and Parkinson’s disease mortality in a prospective Dutch cohort, Occup Environ Med. 2015 Feb 23. pii: oemed-2014-102209. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102209. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE]

Davanipour Z, Sobel E, (2009) Long-term exposure to magnetic fields and the risks of Alzheimer’s disease and breast cancer: Further biological research, Pathophysiology. 2009 Mar 9. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Del Vecchio G et al, (2009) Effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on in vitro models of neurodegenerative disease, Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Oct;30(7):564-72[View Study HERE ]

Feychting M et al, (2003) Occupational magnetic field exposure and neurodegenerative disease, Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):413-9; discussion 427-8 [View Study HERE ]

Garcia AM et al, (2008) Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields and Alzheimer disease: a metaanalysis, Int J Epidemiol. 2008 Feb 2 [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Hakansson N et al, (2003) Neurodegenerative diseases in welders and other workers exposed to high levels of magnetic fields, Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):420-6; discussion 427-8] [View Study HERE ]

Huss A et al, (2008) Residence Near Power Lines and Mortality From Neurodegenerative Diseases: Longitudinal Study of the Swiss Population, Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print]Click here to read] [View Study HERE ]

Koeman T et al, (2015) Occupational exposures and risk of dementia-related mortality in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study, Am J Ind Med. 2015 Jun;58(6):625-35. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22462. Epub 2015 May 5] [View Study HERE ]

Noonan CW et al, (2002) Occupational exposure to magnetic fields in case-referent studies of neurodegenerative diseases, Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002 Feb;28(1):42-8] [View Study HERE ]

NEUROLOGICAL/NEUROPSYCHIATRIC EFFECTS

Abdel-Rassoul G et al, (2007) Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations, Neurotoxicology. 2007 Mar;28(2):434-40[View Study HERE ]

Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA, (2004) Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population, Saudi Med J. 2004 Jun;25(6):732-6 [[View Study HERE ]

Bachmann M et al, (2006) Integration of differences in EEG Analysis Reveals Changes in Human EEG Caused by Microwave, Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1:1597-600 [View Study HERE ]

Cao Z et al, (2000) Effects of electromagnetic radiation from handsets of cellular telephone on neurobehavioral function, Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2000 Mar 30;29(2):102-3[View Study HERE ]

D’Costa H et al, (2003) Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones, Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2003 Dec;26(4):162-7 [[View Study HERE ]

Duan L et al, (1998) Observations of changes in neurobehavioral functions in workers exposed to high-frequency radiation, Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1998 Mar;32(2):109-11 [View Study HERE ]

Eulitz C et al, (1998) Mobile phones modulate response patterns of human brain activity, Neuroreport. 1998 Oct 5;9(14):3229-32] [View Study HERE ]

Freude G et al, (1998) Effects of microwaves emitted by cellular phones on human slow brain potentials, Bioelectromagnetics. 1998;19(6):384-7  [View Study HERE ]

Hocking B, Westerman R, (2002) Neurological changes induced by a mobile phone, Occup Med (Lond). 2002 Oct;52(7):413-5[View Study HERE ]

Huber R et al, (2002) Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG, J Sleep Res 2002 Dec;11(4):289-95[View Study HERE ]

Kramarenko AV, Tan U, (2003) Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human EEG: a brain mapping study, Int J Neurosci. 2003 Jul;113(7):1007-19  [View Study HERE ]

Reiser H et al, (1995) The influence of electromagnetic fields on human brain activity, Eur J Med Res. 1995 Oct 16;1(1):27-32[View Study HERE ]

Robertson JA et al, (2009) Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field exposure can alter neuroprocessing in humans, J R Soc Interface. 2009 Aug 5. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE ]

Saikhedkar N et al, (2014) Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain, Neurol Res. 2014 May 26:1743132814Y0000000392. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Schuz J et al, (2009) Risks for central nervous system diseases among mobile phone subscribers: a Danish retrospective cohort study, PLoS ONE. 2009;4(2):e4389. Epub 2009 Feb 5[View Study HERE ]

Tattersall JE et al, (2001) Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices, Brain Res. 2001 Jun 15;904(1):43-53 [View Study HERE ]

Volkow ND et al, (2011) Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism, JAMA. 2011 Feb 23;305(8):808-13[View Study HERE ]

O

OXIDATIVE STRESS/ FREE RADICAL DAMAGE

Avci B et al, (2012) Oxidative stress induced by 1.8 Ghz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and effects of the garlic extract in rats, Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Jul 12. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

El-Helaly M, Abu-Hashem E, (2010) Oxidative stress, melatonin level, and sleep insufficiency among electronic equipment repairers, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 May;32(4):325-30. doi: 10.1002/bem.20638. Epub 2010 Dec 15 [View Study HERE ]

Erdal N et al, (2008) Effects of Long-term Exposure of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress in Rat Liver, J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2008 Mar;49(2):181-7[View Study HERE ]

Esmekaya MA et al, (2011) 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues, Gen Physiol Biophys. 2011 Mar;30(1):84-9[View Study HERE ]

Guney M et al, (2007) 900 MHz radiofrequency-induced histopathologic changes and oxidative stress in rat endometrium: protection by vitamins E and C, Toxicol Ind Health. 2007 Aug;23(7):411-20[View Study HERE ]

Kesari KK et al, (2011) 900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain, Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):219-34 [View Study HERE ]

Marjanovic AM et al, (2014) Cell oxidation-reduction imbalance after modulated radiofrequency radiation, Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Aug 13:1-6. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Meral I et al, (2007) Effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone on brain oxidative stress and some vitamin levels of guinea pigs, Brain Res. 2007 Sep 12;1169:120-4. Epub 2007 Jul 17 [View Study HERE ]

Oktem F et al, (2005) Oxidative damage in the kidney induced by 900-MHz-emitted mobile phone: protection by melatonin, Arch Med Res. 2005 Jul-Aug;36(4):350-5 [View Study HERE ]

Sokolovic D et al, (2008) Melatonin Reduces Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Exposure of Microwave Radiation from Mobile Phones in Rat Brain, J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2008 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Yurekli A et al, (2006) GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats, Electromagn Biol Med 25(3):177-88] [View Study HERE ]

P

PREGNANCY

Aly AA et al, (2008) Effects of 900-MHz radio frequencies on the chemotaxis of human neutrophils in vitro, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008 Feb;55(2):795-7 [View Study HERE]

Bellieni CV et al, (2012) Is newborn melatonin production influenced by magnetic fields produced by incubators?, Early Hum Dev. 2012 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Cao YN et al, (2006) Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on reproduction of female mice and development of offsprings, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2006 Aug;24(8):468-70[View Study HERE ]

de Vocht F, Lee B, (2014) Residential proximity to electromagnetic field sources and birth weight: Minimizing residual confounding using multiple imputation and propensity score matching, Environ Int. 2014 Aug;69:51-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.012. Epub 2014 May 7[View Study HERE ]

Ferreira A et al, (2006) Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring, Life Sci 2006 Dec 3;80(1):43-50[View Study HERE ]

Infante-Rivard C, Deadman JE, (2003) Maternal occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields during pregnancy and childhood leukemia, Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):437-41[View Study HERE ]

Lee GM et al, (2002) A nested case-control study of residential and personal magnetic field measures and miscarriages, Epidemiology. 2002 Jan;13(1):21-31[View Study HERE ]

Li DK et al, (2011) Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Fields During Pregnancy in Relation to the Risk of Asthma in Offspring, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Li DK et al, (2017) Exposure to Magnetic Field Non-Ionizing Radiation and the Risk of Miscarriage: A Prospective Cohort Study., Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 13;7(1):17541. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-16623-8.  [View Study HERE ]

Li DK et al, (2002) A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage, Epidemiology. 2002 Jan;13(1):9-20[View Study HERE ]

Li P et al, (2009) Maternal occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and the risk of brain cancer in the offspring, Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Aug;20(6):945-55. Epub 2009 Feb 18 [View Study HERE ]

Lupke M et al, (2004) Cell activating capacity of 50 Hz magnetic fields to release reactive oxygen intermediates in human umbilical cord blood-derived monocytes and in Mono Mac 6 cells, Free Radic Res. 2004 Sep;38(9):985-93[View Study HERE ]

Odaci E et al, (2008) Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 Mhz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study, Brain Res. 2008 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]

Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Stewart WF, (1993) Miscarriages among female physical therapists who report using radio- and microwavefrequency electromagnetic radiation, Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Nov 15;138(10):775-86[View Study HERE ]

Simko M, Mattsson MO, (2004) Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields as effectors of cellular responses in vitro: possible immune cell activation, J Cell Biochem. 2004 Sep 1;93(1):83-92 [View Study HERE ]

Tsarna, E., Reedijk, M., Birks, L., Guxens, M., Ballester, F., & Ha, M. et al. (2019). Associations of Maternal Cell-Phone Use During Pregnancy With Pregnancy Duration and Fetal Growth in 4 Birth Cohorts. American Journal Of Epidemiology188(7), 1270-1280. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwz092 [View Study HERE]

Ubeda A et al, (1994) Chick embryo development can be irreversibly altered by early exposure to weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics. 1994;15(5):385-98[View Study HERE ]

Zhou LY et al, (2014) Epidemiological investigation of risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion in Beijing, Chin J Integr Med. 2015 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

 

 

PULSED EMFS

Cook CM et al, (2008) Changes in human EEG alpha activity following exposure to two different pulsed magnetic field sequences, Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 Jul 28 [Epub]  [View Study HERE ]

Dobson J, St. Pierre T, (1996) Application of the ferromagnetic transduction model to D.C. and pulsed magnetic fields: effects on epileptogenic tissue and implications for cellular phone safety, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996 Oct 23;227(3):718-23[View Study HERE ]

Huber R et al, (2000) Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG, Neuroreport. 2000 Oct 20;11(15):3321-5[View Study HERE ]

Huber R et al, (2005) Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow, Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Feb;21(4):1000-6 [View Study HERE ]

Krause CM et al, (2007) Effects of pulsed and continuous wave 902 MHz mobile phone exposure on brain oscillatory activity during cognitive processing, Bioelectromagnetics 2007 May;28(4):296-308[View Study HERE ]

Li L et al, (2005) Pulsed electric field exposure of insulin induces anti-proliferative effects on human hepatocytes, Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 Dec;26(8):639-47[View Study HERE ]

Lopez-Martin E et al, (2009) The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness, J Neurosci Res. 2009 May 1;87(6):1484-99 [View Study HERE ]

Robertson JA et al, (2009) Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field exposure can alter neuroprocessing in humans, J R Soc Interface. 2009 Aug 5. [Epub ahead of print][View Study HERE ]

Schmid MR et al, (2012) Sleep EEG alterations: effects of pulsed magnetic fields versus pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields, J Sleep Res. 2012 Jun 22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01025.x. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Trillo MA et al, (2011) Cytostatic response of NB69 cells to weak pulse-modulated 2.2 GHz radar-like signals, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Jan 28. doi: 10.1002/bem.20643. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

R

RADIO-FREQUENCY RADIATION

Clark ML et al, (2007) Biomonitoring of estrogen and melatonin metabolites among women residing near radio and television broadcasting transmitters, J Occup Environ Med. 2007 Oct;49(10):1149-56 [View Study HERE ]

Gajski G et al, (2009) Radioprotective effects of honeybee venom (Apis mellifera) against 915-MHz microwave radiation-induced DNA damage in wistar rat lymphocytes: in vitro study, Int J Toxicol. 2009 Mar-Apr;28(2):88-98 [View Study HERE ]

Grajewski B et al, (2000) Semen quality and hormone levels among radiofrequency heater operators, J Occup Environ Med. 2000 Oct;42(10):993-1005[View Study HERE ]

Harkless, Ryan, Muntather Al-Quraishi and Mary C. Vagula (2014). Radiation hazards of radio frequency waves on the early embryonic development of Zebrafish.​ ​ SPIE Proceedings​, vol. 9112. [View Study HERE]

Karaca E et al, (2011) The genotoxic effect of radiofrequency waves on mouse brain, J Neurooncol. 2011 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE ]

Lonn S et al, (2004) Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma, Epidemiology. 2004 Nov;15(6):653-9  [View Study HERE ]

Lopez-Martin E et al, (2009) The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness, J Neurosci Res. 2009 May 1;87(6):1484-99[View Study HERE ]

Maskey D et al, (2014) Alteration of glycine receptor immunoreactivity in the auditory brainstem of mice following three months of exposure to radiofrequency radiation at SAR 4.0 W/kg, Int J Mol Med. 2014 Aug;34(2):409-19. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2014.1784. Epub 2014 May 22[View Study HERE ]

Nittby H et al, (2008) Radiofrequency and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field effects on the blood-brain barrier, Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(2):103-26[View Study HERE ]

Sirav B, Seyhan N, (2009) Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation, Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28(2):215-2 [View Study HERE ]

Sirav B, Seyhan N, (2011) Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats, Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):253-60  [View Study HERE ]

Joubert V et al, (2008) Apoptosis is Induced by Radiofrequency Fields through the Caspase-Independent Mitochondrial Pathway in Cortical Neurons, Radiat Res. 2008 Jan;169(1):38-45[View Study HERE ]

Lerchl A et al, (2015) Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Apr 17;459(4):585-90. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.02.151. Epub 2015 Mar 6 [View Study HERE]

Wiltschko R, et al. (2015) ​Magnetoreception in birds: the effect of radio-frequency fields, ​Journal of The Royal Society Interface​ [View Study HERE]

Zareen N et al, (2009) Derangement of chick embryo retinal differentiation caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2009 Mar;49(1):15-9 [View Study HERE]

 

REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS & INFERTILITY 

Adams, Jessica A., et al, (2014), Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ​Environment International, ​70, pp. 106-112. [View Study HERE]

Agarwal A et al, (2008) Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic, Fertil Steril. 2008 Jan;89(1):124-8  [View Study HERE ]

Agarwal A et al, (2008) Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study, Fertil Steril. 2008 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Agarwal A, Durairajanayagam D, (2014) Are men talking their reproductive health away?, Asian J Androl. 2014 Nov 18. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.140963. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Atasoy HI et al, (2012) Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices, J Pediatr Urol. 2012 Mar 30. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Avendano C et al, (2012) Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation, Fertil Steril. 2012 Jan;97(1):39-45.e2. Epub 2011 Nov 21[View Study HERE ]

Baste V et al, (2008) Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility and sex ratio of offspring, Eur J Epidemiol. 2008 Apr 16 [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Boga A et al, (2015) The effect of 900 and 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation and nicotine sulfate administration on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis, Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015 Mar;113:378-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.020. Epub 2014 Dec 20.  [View Study HERE ]

Budak GG et al, (2009) Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in pregnant adult rabbits, Clin Invest Med. 2009 Apr 1;32(2):E112-6 [View Study HERE ]

Chen C et al, (2014) Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells, Sci Rep. 2014 May 29;4:5103. doi: 10.1038/srep05103.  [View Study HERE ]

Davis RL, Mostofi FK, (1993) Cluster of testicular cancer in police officers exposed to hand-held radar, Am J Ind Med. 1993 Aug;24(2):231-3[View Study HERE ]

De Iuliis GN et al, (2009) Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro, PLoS One. 2009 Jul 31;4(7):e6446[View Study HERE ]

Desai NR et al, (2009) Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system, Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009 Oct 22;7:114[View Study HERE ]

Falzone N et al, (2010) The effect of pulsed 900-MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa, Int J Androl. 2010 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Fejes I et al, (2005) Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality?, Arch Androl. 2005 Sep-Oct;51(5):385-93[View Study HERE ]

Ferreira A et al, (2006) Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring, Life Sci 2006 Dec 3;80(1):43-50 [View Study HERE ]

Gorpinchenko I et al, (2014) The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality, Cent European J Urol. 2014;67(1):65-71. doi: 10.5173/ceju.2014.01.art14. Epub 2014 Apr 17[View Study HERE]

Grajewski B et al, (2000) Semen quality and hormone levels among radiofrequency heater operators, J Occup Environ Med. 2000 Oct;42(10):993-1005[View Study HERE ]

Hardell L et al, (1998) Case-control study on risk factors for testicular cancer, Int J Oncol. 1998 Dec;13(6):1299-303 [View Study HERE ]

Kesari KK, Behari J, (2012) Evidence for mobile phone radiation exposure effects on reproductive pattern of male rats: Role of ROS, Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Sep;31(3):213-22 [View Study HERE ]

Lukac N et al, (2011) In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility, J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2011 Oct;46(12):1417-23[View Study HERE ]

Mailankot M et al, (2009) Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats, Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(6):561-5[View Study HERE ]

Odaci E et al, (2008) Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 Mhz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study, Brain Res. 2008 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Okatan DO et al, (2018) Continuous 900-megahertz electromagnetic field applied in middle and late-adolescence causes qualitative and quantitative changes in the ovarian morphology, tissue and blood biochemistry of the rat., Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Feb;94(2):186-198. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1420924. Epub 2018 Jan 9 [View Study HERE ]

Otitoloju AA et al, (2009) Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010 Jan;84(1):51-4. Epub 2009 Oct 9 [View Study HERE ]

Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Stewart WF, (1993) Miscarriages among female physical therapists who report using radio- and microwavefrequency electromagnetic radiation, Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Nov 15;138(10):775-86[View Study HERE ]

Pourlis AF, (2009) Reproductive and developmental effects of EMF in vertebrate animal models, Pathophysiology. 2009 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Ruediger HW, (2009) Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, Pathophysiology. 2009 Mar 12. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE ]

Salama N et al, (2010) Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit, Int J Androl. 2010 Feb;33(1):88-94. Epub 2009 Dec 2 [View Study HERE ]

Sun W et al, (2011) A 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation induces EGF receptor clustering and phosphorylation in cultured human amniotic (FL) cells, Int J Radiat Biol. 2011 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Xu XR et al, (2012) The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on the pH of the adult male semen and the motoricity parameters of spermatozoa in vitro, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2012 Mar;30(3):178-80[View Study HERE ]

Yan JG et al, (2007) Effects of cellular phone emissions on sperm motility in rats, Fertil Steril. 2007 Oct;88(4):957-64. Epub 2007 Jul 12 [View Study HERE ]

Zalata A et al, (2015) In vitro effect of cell phone radiation on motility, DNA fragmentation and clusterin gene expression in human sperm, Int J Fertil Steril. 2015 Apr-Jun;9(1):129-36. Epub 2015 Apr 21[View Study HERE ]

 

S

SLEEP

Altpeter ES et al, (2006) Effect of short-wave (6-22 MHz) magnetic fields on sleep quality and melatonin cycle in humans: the Schwarzenburg shut-down study, Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 Feb;27(2):142-50[View Study HERE ]

Borbely AA et al, (1999) Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram, Neurosci Lett. 1999 Nov 19;275(3):207-10 [View Study HERE ]

Cao H et al, (2015) Circadian rhythmicity of antioxidant markers in rats exposed to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency fields, Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Feb 12;12(2):2071-87. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120202071. [View Study HERE ]

Contalbrigo L et al, (2009) Effects of different electromagnetic fields on circadian rhythms of some haematochemical parameters in rats, Biomed Environ Sci. 2009 Aug;22(4):348-53[View Study HERE]

El-Helaly M, Abu-Hashem E, (2010) Oxidative stress, melatonin level, and sleep insufficiency among electronic equipment repairers, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 May;32(4):325-30. doi: 10.1002/bem.20638. Epub 2010 Dec 15[View Study HERE ]

Ghosn R et al, (2015) Radiofrequency signal affects alpha band in resting electroencephalogram, J Neurophysiol. 2015 Feb18:jn.00765.2014. doi: 10.1152/jn.00765.2014. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE ]

Graham C, Cook MR, (1999) Human sleep in 60 Hz magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics. 1999;20(5):277-83[View Study HERE ]

Henshaw DL et al, (April 2008) Can disturbances in the atmospheric electric field created by powerline corona ions disrupt melatonin production in the pineal gland?, J Pineal Res. 2008 Apr 1. [Epub ahead of print]  [View Study HERE ]

Henshaw DL, Reiter RJ, (2005) Do magnetic fields cause increased risk of childhood leukemia via melatonin disruption?, Bioelectromagnetics. 2005;Suppl 7:S86-97[View Study HERE ]

Huber R et al, (2002) Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG, J Sleep Res 2002 Dec;11(4):289-95[View Study HERE ]

Huber R et al, (2003) Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate, Bioelectromagnetics. 2003 May;24(4):262-76[View Study HERE ]

Huber R et al, (2000) Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG, Neuroreport. 2000 Oct 20;11(15):3321-5[View Study HERE ]

Hung CS et al, (2007) Mobile phone ‘talk-mode’ signal delays EEG-determined sleep onset, Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jun 21;421(1):82-6[View Study HERE ]

Juutilainen J, Kumlin T, (2006) Occupational magnetic field exposure and melatonin: interaction with light-at-night, Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 Jul;27(5):423-6[View Study HERE ]

Loughran SP et al, (2011) Individual differences in the effects of mobile phone exposure on human sleep: Rethinking the problem, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Aug 3. doi: 10.1002/bem.20691. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Lowden A et al, (2011) Sleep after mobile phone exposure in subjects with mobile phone-related symptoms, Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Jan;32(1):4-14[View Study HERE ]

Mohammed HS et al, (2013) Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats, J Adv Res. 2013 Mar;4(2):181-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2012.05.005. Epub 2012 Jun 25[View Study HERE ]

Perentos N et al, (2008) The effect of GSM-like ELF radiation on the alpha band of the human resting EEG, Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:5680-3 [View Study HERE ]

Persinger MA, (2006) A potential multiple resonance mechanism by which weak magnetic fields affect molecules and medical problems: the example of melatonin and experimental “multiple sclerosis”, Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(4):811-5 [View Study HERE]

Schmid MR et al, (2012) Sleep EEG alterations: effects of pulsed magnetic fields versus pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields, J Sleep Res. 2012 Jun 22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01025.x. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]

Sokolovic D et al, (2008) Melatonin Reduces Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Exposure of Microwave Radiation from Mobile Phones in Rat Brain, J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2008 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE ]

Vorobyov V et al, (2010) Repeated exposure to low-level extremely low frequency-modulated microwaves affects cortex-hypothalamus interplay in freely moving rats: EEG study, Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 May;86(5):376-83[View Study HERE ]

STRESS & IMMUNE FUNCTION

Blank M, Goodman R, (2009) Electromagnetic fields stress living cells, Pathophysiology. 2009 Mar 4. [Epub ahead of print] [View Study HERE]

Grigoriev YG et al, (2010) Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results, Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Dec;31(8):589-602. doi: 10.1002/bem.20605. Epub 2010 Sep 20 [View Study HERE ]

Lee BC et al, (2004) Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on the antioxidant defense system in mouse brain: a chemiluminescence study, J Photochem Photobiol B. 2004 Jan 23;73(1-2):43-8[View Study HERE ]

Pall ML, (2018) Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health., Environ Res. 2018 Jul;164:405-416. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.035. Epub 2018 Mar 21. [View Study HERE ]

Walleczek J, (1992) Electromagnetic field effects on cells of the immune system: the role of calcium signaling, FASEB J. 1992 Oct;6(13):3177-85[View Study HERE ]

 

SUICIDE

Ahlbom A, (2001) Neurodegenerative diseases, suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF, Bioelectromagnetics. 2001;Suppl 5:S132-43 [View Study HERE ]

Reichmanis M et al, (1979) Relation between suicide and the electromagnetic field of overhead power lines, Physiol Chem Phys. 1979;11(5):395403[View Study HERE ]

van Wijngaarden E, (2003) An exploratory investigation of suicide and occupational exposure, J Occup Environ Med. 2003 Jan;45(1):96101] [View Study HERE ]

T

TINNITUS

Hardell L et al, (2003) Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones, Neuroepidemiology 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):124-9[View Study HERE ]

Hutter HP et al, (2010) Tinnitus and mobile phone use, Occup Environ Med. 2010 Dec;67(12):804-8. Epub 2010 Jun 23[View Study HERE ]

W


Wi-Fi

Pall ML, (2018) Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health., Environ Res. 2018 Jul;164:405-416. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.035. Epub 2018 Mar 21. [View Study HERE ]

 

Dasdag, S., Akdag, M., Erdal, M., Erdal, N., Ay, O., & Ay, M. et al. (2015). Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue. International Journal Of Radiation Biology91(7), 555-561. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2015.1028599 [View Study HERE]

5G


5G WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY

Betzalel, N., Ben Ishai, P., & Feldman, Y. (2018). The human skin as a sub-THz receiver – Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?. Environmental Research163, 208-216. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.032 [View Study HERE]

Di Ciaula, A. (2018). Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?. International Journal Of Hygiene And Environmental Health221(3), 367-375. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011 [View Study HERE]

Neufeld, E., & Kuster, N. (2018). Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Physics, 1. doi: 10.1097/hp.0000000000000930 [View Study HERE]

Russell, C. (2018). 5 G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research165, 484-495. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016 [View Study HERE]

Safe EMF Education Network

Helping communities make informed decisions & access technology safely

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